In the 1040s King Edward established his Royal Palace by the banks of the Thames. Nearby was a Benedictine monastery which was rebuilt as a large stone church in honour of St Peter the Apostle. This church became known as the ‘west minster’ to distinguish it from St Paul’s Cathedral (the ‘east minster’). In 1245 Henry III ordered for the church to be rebuild in grand Gothic style. The Abbey was designed as a monastery and a house of worship, but also as a place for Royal coronations and burials. The building had to rival the great cathedrals of France. The splendid pavement in front of the High Altar was laid down in 1268 and belongs to a type known as Cosmati work. Its technique of opus sectile (‘cut work’) had been developed by four generations of the Cosmati brothers in Rome. Henry invited a group of Roman workmen to settle in London and design the Abbey’s pavement. The name of the leader of these craftsmen has survived as Odoricus.