Componist, singer, and teacher Gioseffo Catrufo was born on 19 April 1771 in Naples. He studied at the conservatory of La Pietà dei Turchini in Naples and by 1791 he had composed two operas. In 1799 he joined the French army in the War of the Second Coalition under General Barthélemy Schérer (Bonaparte himself was leading the Egyptian Campaign). Having left the army in 1804, he settled in Genua writing music for church and theatre. He settled in Paris and moved to London in 1835 where he made a living as a teacher of singing. In 1839 Eduard [Edward] Eliason, leader of the orchestra of Drury Lane Theatre, started a series of Concerts d’été with an orchestra of nearly a hundred players. In 1840 Catrufo acted as his manager. These ‘promenade concerts’ were a new and popular phenomenon. The term dates from 1838 when London’s Lyceum Theatre announced a program of ‘Promenade Concerts à la Musard’. Philippe Musard had introduced such open-air concerts in Paris. In 1840 he conducted concerts in the Lyceum Theatre. Catrufo died in London in August 1851.