Founded by Fortunato Pio Castellani in the early nineteenth century, the Castellani firm of jewellers was based near the Spanish Steps in Rome. Apart from being a fine craftsman, he was a collector of Etruscan, Greek, and Roman jewellery which provided inspiration for his work. In the early 1860s, his son Alessandro Castellani opened a branch at no. 13 Frith Street, Soho. The firm’s clientele included Napoleon III, Prince Albert, and Queen Victoria’s daughter, Empress Frederick of Prussia. The London branch was continued by Naples-born Carlo Giuliano.
In 1874, his son Arthur Giuliano moved the shop to no. 115 Piccadilly (the Frith Street premises were retained as a workshop until 1877). Listed as an art jeweller, silversmith, and diamond merchant, he won the patronage of Queen Victoria, and later, of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. Giuliano’s work was popular amongst the artistic community, and the firm was asked to make up jewellery to the designs of Edward Burne-Jones, Charles Ricketts, and William Holman-Hunt. Lawrence Alma-Tadema used jewels by Giuliano in his work derived from Classical sources. After his death in 1895 the business was continued by his sons Carlo Joseph and Arthur Alphonse, trading under the name Carlo & Arthur Giuliano. They moved the firm to no. 48 Knightsbridge. After Arthur Alphonse committed suicide in August 1914, their business was closed.