Watling Street was an ancient trackway that was later paved by the Romans from London to Dover. A section of Watling Street still exists in the City of London. In 60/1 AD the so-called Battle of Watling Street took place between an alliance of indigenous Brythonic tribes and the Romans. Though outnumbered, the Romans gained victory which secured Roman rule until 410. There remain many traces of Roman London, an era in which England was an integral part of Europe. In its glory days, the city may have numbered some 25,000 inhabitants. With the departure of the Romans, London’s civilisation crumbled. It was not until the arrival of a new wave of immigrants after the Norman Conquest that London recovered its early development.